Green Giant Canopy Anole (Anolis frenatus)

We found this anole sleeping on a branch as we hiked in search of the Ghost Glass Frog at Yatama Ecolodge. It did not move an inch, but after a few shots it opened its eyes, presumably awakened by the camera flash. Compared with the much more common Slender Anole, this species is big and stocky, and its green coloration helps it camouflage effectively on leafs and branches. Its colors are rather bright for an anole, but I suppose it might be helpful to attract potential mates.

Vaillant’s Frog (Lithobates vaillanti)

When night falls at Yatama Ecolodge, frogs take over every corner, specially on humid, rainy nights. One such night, I was searching for the Splending Leaf Frog which sadly did not appear, when the guide mentioned he had heard it calling from a pond located close to the main refuge. I went there, and though I did not see the Splendid, I found this Vaillant’s Frog calling from the edge of the shallow pond. To me it seems that this frog chose to stay on a green leaf to help it camouflage better, as the soil and dead leaves are brown, making green frogs a bit conspicuous even with the scarce light of the night. It let me get close to snap a few pictures, and it remained in the same place when I left.

Costa Rica Forests and Rivers

When I started to learn landscape photography, I was disappointed that Costa Rica did not have any of the impressive mountains and ridges of North America and Europe. I compared the green forests covering a great portion of the natural environment in Costa Rica, to the Rocky Mountains in Canada and thought that in all the green of the country, there were no landscapes worth shooting. How misleading that thought was! In fact, nowadays I think that Costa Rica is exciting for landscape photography precisely due to all that green. The trees and forests take so many shapes and the rivers that go through them create sinuous lines that can only be found here. I still love the Rockies, but I love Costa Rica the most, and I am always searching for more interesting compositions to showcase its beauty.

Costa Rica Waterfalls

Costa Rica has too many waterfalls to count. Some waterfalls are well known and relatively easy to reach like Rio Celeste and Peace Waterfall Gardens, while others are secluded and take some effort hiking through mountains and forests, like the small waterfall that hides in Yatama Ecolodge. There’s even the Bajo del Toro area, where you find an entrance to a waterfall hike every kilometer or so. The largest might measure 100 meters from head to bottom, while the smallest barely falling from 2 meters high, yet the sight of a waterfall at the end of trail is very rewarding for people. A dip into the water is all people need to forget how sorting obstacles through the rain forest draws away your energy, and fills you with happiness. And the silky water effect is a great addition to any landscape photo.

Pygmy Rain Frog (Pristimantis ridens)

The Pygmy Rain Frog is one of the most commonly seen frogs at Yatama Ecolodge. Many times we saw individuals jump to get out of the trail we were hiking through, and hide in the safety of the leaf litter. A few other individuals were resting on leaves close to the ground like the one below. All individuals we saw were tiny, similar to the size of a Strawberry Poison Dart Frog which is probably more familiar to most of us. While it may similar in form to the Chiriqui Robber Frog, look at the very bright yellow color of the individual in this picture versus the more brownish color of the Chiriqui; also the size difference and the iris color are telltale signs to differentiate between both species.

Emerald Glass Frog (Espadarana prosoblepon)

We found this frog during a night time hike in search of the Ghost Glass Frog at Yatama Ecolodge, a prime conservation reserve bordering Braulio Carrillo National Park. It acted very docile, barely moving its head down from the upward position it had when we found it. The easiest way to recognize it among the Glass Frog family is by the dark spots on an otherwise uniform green skin. Males feature a blue-green hook that seems to stem from the shoulder joint, faintly visible in the left-hand side picture below; one can only ask what purpose this structure it might serve. The eyes are relatively forward facing, like in most other species in the family.

Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna)

The Eastern Meadowlark is an inhabitant of grass plains in Central Valley and the Caribbean areas. I have seen this species at my home in San Rafael de Alajuela, at La Guacima, at the Santa Ana Windmills (that’s 1,600 meters above sea level!) and most recently in San Bernardino, near Guápiles. Sometimes they perch in fence posts, other times they just find a comfortable place in the grass where they forage. Their song is very high-pitched and far-carrying. Indeed, many times I have been able to spot them as I bike through by listening to their song. Their belly is bright yellow, while their back is streaked in cream and dark brown. A key characteristic is the plump body, more similar to the antpittas than to any yellow-bellied flycatcher. When startled, they fly away and land on another patch of grass where they feel safe, the continue foraging. The juvenile is somewhat duller and never strays too far from its parent.

Side-striped Palm-Pitviper (Bothriechis lateralis)

The Side-striped Palm-Pitviper is a venomous snake, sharing its genus with the Eyelash Palm-Pitviper. The Side-striped is green, which helps to camouflage them in the rain forest, as it mainly has arboreal habits. It has a prehensile tail, which means that it can be coiled around branches that work as an anchor to keep its balance. It is moderate in size, less than 1 meter in length, typically between 60 and 70 centimeters. It has a light-blue postocular stripe. Juveniles are rather drab, having a brown skin.

Dwarf Glass Frog (Teratohyla spinosa)

The Dwarf Glass Frog is the smallest Glass Frog to be seen in Costa Rica, roughly similar in size to a Strawberry Poison Dart Frog, but given its green dorsal skin it is more difficult to spot, specially if they stay motionless on a green leaf; increasing the probabilities of seeing one is the fact that they call from the upper side of leafs, so putting enough attention and following the direction of their call, one might discover an individual. Their eyes are more forward facing than the Dusty Glass Frog, which is the other member of the Teratohyla genus but is a lot larger, also differentiated by the lack of any spots on the Dwarf. An important reproductive characteristic of this species is that the egg clutches are left hanging from the underside of leafs, above a stream so that tadpoles can easily drop to a certain source of water. I have seen these frogs a few times resting on leaves as we searched for the Ghost Glass Frog at Yatama Ecolodge, a prime conservation reserve bordering Braulio Carrillo National Park.

Dusty Glass Frog (Teratohyla pulverata)

Glass Frogs are fascinating, given their transparent ventral skin, which lets us peak into the internal structure of a frog. The organs that are visible varies according to the species, with some species showing the intestines and lower organs, while others show the heart and upper structure. In some of them, the bones are also visible inside the legs. Most of these frogs are overall green in coloration, which provides camouflage in the forest environment they live in.

This species is called Dusty given how the dorsal skin is covered in very small white spots. They are intermediate between the sizes of Strawberry and Green and Black Poison Dart Frogs, and definitely bigger than the Dwarf Glass Frog, which belongs to the same family of frogs. Their skin is mostly green, with yellowish tints in the ventral surfaces of the limbs and in the tips of fingers and toes. Given these colors, it is not surprising that I could be staring directly into one of these sitting conspicuously on a leaf and still not see it! The eyes are very large, located at each side of the head, enabling the frog to spot predators from both sides; the pupil is horizontally elliptical, while the iris is covered with an intricate pattern of blue and gray.